Submitted Preprints

  1. Marí, M., Martins, P. T., & Boeckx, C. (2017). SRGAP2 and the gradual evolution of the modern human language faculty. BioRxiv. 10.1101/143248
    In this paper we argue that vocal learning in Homo preceded the emergence of Anatomically Modern Humans. We build our claim on the evolutionary history of the SLIT-ROBO GTPase 2 gene (SRGAP2). The SLIT-ROBO pathway has been shown to have an important role in the context of vocal learning. Though the influence of particularly SRGAP2 in the emergence of this aspect of language has not gone unnoticed, recent results now allow us to articulate a mechanistic hypothesis of its role in the context of axon guidance. Specifically, SRGAP2C, a duplication of SRGAP2 crucially also found in Neanderthals and Denisovans, but not in extant mammals, inhibits the “original” SRGAP2A, which in turn modulates the axon guidance function of SLIT-ROBO. This, we claim, could have played a role in achieving the critical cortico-laryngeal connection of the vocal learning circuit. Our conclusions support the idea that complex vocal learning could already have been part of the arsenal of some of our extinct ancestors.
    @article{mari_etal2017,
      author = {Marí, Maties and Martins, Pedro Tiago and Boeckx, Cedric},
      title = {SRGAP2 and the gradual evolution of the modern human language faculty},
      year = {2017},
      doi = {10.1101/143248},
      publisher = {Cold Spring Harbor Labs Journals},
      journal = {bioRxiv}
    }
    
    PDF

Papers

  1. Theofanopoulou, C., Gastaldon, S., O’Rourke, T., Samuels, B. D., Messner, A., Martins, P. T., Delogu, F., Alamri, S., & Boeckx, C. (2017). Self-domestication in Homo sapiens: Insights from comparative genomics. PLoS ONE, 12(10), e0185306. 10.1371/journal.pone.0185306
    This study identifies and analyzes statistically significant overlaps between selective sweep screens in anatomically modern humans and several domesticated species. The results obtained suggest that (paleo-)genomic data can be exploited to complement the fossil record and support the idea of self-domestication in Homo sapiens, a process that likely intensified as our species populated its niche. Our analysis lends support to attempts to cap- ture the “domestication syndrome” in terms of alterations to certain signaling pathways and cell lineages, such as the neural crest.
    @article{theofanopoulou_etal17,
      author = {Theofanopoulou, Constantina and Gastaldon, Simone and O'Rourke, Thomas and Samuels, Bridget D. and Messner, Angela and Martins, Pedro Tiago and Delogu, Francesco and Alamri, Saleh and Boeckx, Cedric},
      title = {Self-domestication in Homo sapiens: Insights from comparative genomics},
      year = {2017},
      volume = {12},
      number = {10},
      pages = {e0185306},
      doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0185306},
      journal = {{PLoS ONE}}
    }
    
    PDF
    How humans (maybe) domesticated themselves. ScienceNews 191(13): 26. July 8, 2017
  2. Samuels, B. D., Martins, P. T., & Boeckx, C. (2017). 言語知識の由来―強勢類型への進化的アプローチ― [Linguistic knowledge by descent: an evolutionary approach to stress typology]. 音声研究 [Journal of the Phonetic Society of Japan]. 特集テーマ:音声/音韻から言語の化石を発掘する:進化言語学の最新の知見 [Special Issue: Excavating Phonetic/Phonological Fossils in Language: Current Trends in Evolutionary Linguistics], 21(1), 71–78.
    We consider here several properties of phonological stress systems, including the midpoint pathology, an unattested pattern in which stress is confined to a word-medial syllable in short words but reverts to an edge-based window in longer words. Previous attempts have been made to rule out midpoint systems by eliminating the phonological constraints that yield them, or by alluding to difficulties in learning them. We suggest that a preference for representing word edges in memory and limits on subitization—evolutionarily older “fossil” abilities which are neither specific to humans nor to language — are sufficient to rule out the midpoint pathology. We take the same approach to motivate accentual window size and some left-right asymmetries observed in the typology of attested stress systems. This approach highlights the relevance of descent in accounting for human cognition, as well as the benefits that evolutionary thinking can bring to the study of language.
    @article{samuels17,
      author = {Samuels, Bridget D and Martins, Pedro Tiago and Boeckx, Cedric},
      year = {2017},
      title = {言語知識の由来―強勢類型への進化的アプローチ― [Linguistic knowledge by descent: an evolutionary approach to stress typology]},
      journal = {音声研究 [Journal of the Phonetic Society of Japan]. 特集テーマ:音声/音韻から言語の化石を発掘する:進化言語学の最新の知見 [Special issue: Excavating phonetic/phonological fossils in language: current trends in evolutionary linguistics]},
      volume = {21},
      number = {1},
      pages = {71--78}
    }
    
    PDF
  3. Martins, P. T., & Boeckx, C. (2016). What we talk about when we talk about biolinguistics. Linguistics Vanguard, 2(1). 10.1515/lingvan-2016-0007
    The study of the biological foundations of language is sometimes called biolinguistics. This particular term finds its historical origins in the 1950s, and for various reasons it has also gained considerable traction in recent years. While its increasing use apparently signals an equally increasing interest in biology, apart from a few exceptions not much is added to and beyond standard linguistic theorizing by those linguists who use it, resulting in a complex and confusing literature. This state of affairs has led, on the one hand, to the perpetuation of biologically implausible proposals that have pervaded linguistics for decades, and to ill-placed criticism on the progress and even the very legitimacy of a biologically-informed study of language, on the other. By reviewing different ways in which research under the biolinguistics moniker has been carried out, as well as some common criticisms, we hope to dispel some misconceptions about what constitutes a biolinguistic approach, as well as point out what we contend is real progress in the study of the biological bases and evolution of the human language faculty, to which the term is better and rightly applied.
    @article{martinsboeckx16,
      author = {Martins, Pedro Tiago and Boeckx, Cedric},
      title = {What we talk about when we talk about biolinguistics},
      year = {2016},
      journal = {Linguistics Vanguard},
      number = {1},
      volume = {2},
      doi = {10.1515/lingvan-2016-0007}
    }
    
  4. Theofanopoulou, C., Martins, P. T., Ramirez, J., Zhang, E., Castillo, G., Shi, E., Alamri, S., Martínez-Àlvarez, A., & Leivada, E. (2015). Neurological foundations of language: Emerging perspectives. Llengua, Societat i Comunicació, 13, 4–11. 10.1344/LSC2015.13.2
    Recent advances in the context of the biological studies of the human language capacity make it clear that a successful marriage of the relevant disciplines— linguistics and biology, broadly construed—will require a serious rethinking of the neurobiological foundations of language. It is our aim in this paper to give a flavor of some of the results of current investigations carried out by our research group that we think contribute to this emerging neurobiology of language.
    @article{theofanopoulou_etal15,
      author = {Theofanopoulou, Constantina and Martins, Pedro Tiago and Ramirez, Javier and Zhang, Elizabeth and Castillo, Gonzalo and Shi, Edward and Alamri, Saleh and Martínez-Àlvarez, Anna and Leivada, Evelina},
      title = {Neurological foundations of language: Emerging perspectives},
      journal = {Llengua, Societat i Comunicació},
      volume = {13},
      pages = {4--11},
      year = {2015},
      doi = {10.1344/LSC2015.13.2}
    }
    
    PDF
  5. Martins, P. T., & Boeckx, C. (2014). Attention mechanisms and the mosaic evolution of speech. Frontiers in Psychology, 5(1463). 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01463
    There is still no categorical answer for why humans, and no other species, have speech, or why speech is the way it is. Several purely anatomical arguments have been put forward, but they have been shown to be false, biologically implausible, or of limited scope. This perspective paper supports the idea that evolutionary theories of speech could benefit from a focus on the cognitive mechanisms that make speech possible, for which antecedents in evolutionary history and brain correlates can be found. This type of approach is part of a very recent, but rapidly growing tradition, which has provided crucial insights on the nature of human speech by focusing on the biological bases of vocal learning. Here, we call attention to what might be an important ingredient for speech. We contend that a general mechanism of attention, which manifests itself not only in visual but also auditory (and possibly other) modalities, might be one of the key pieces of human speech, in addition to the mechanisms underlying vocal learning, and the pairing of facial gestures with vocalic units.
    @article{martinsboeckx14,
      author = {Martins, Pedro Tiago and Boeckx, Cedric},
      title = {Attention mechanisms and the mosaic evolution of speech},
      journal = {Frontiers in Psychology},
      volume = {5},
      year = {2014},
      number = {1463},
      doi = {10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01463}
    }
    
    PDF
  6. Boeckx, C., Leivada, E., & Martins, P. T. (2013). Language and Complexity Considerations: A Biolinguistic Perspective. Llengua, Societat i Communicació, 11, 26–33.
    The notion of complexity recurrently shows up in the context of language studies. From a Chomskyan/biolinguistic perspective, and given the uniform character of language acquisition, it has been assumed that all languages are equally complex or simple. However, the proper focus of Chomskyan linguistics is not natural languages, but the language faculty. Here, we discuss complexity in this domain, relying on Deacon’s (2006) distinction between various levels of complexity. The discussion focuses on grammars of I(nternal)-languages and how these display traces of cumulative complexity (Deacon’s third level) that go beyond the narrow confines of internalism. Focusing on instances of recent (sign) language emergence, and evidence from birdsongs, we argue that biolinguistics would be wrong to ignore what it can learn from how socio-cultural factors affect the linguistic phenotype.
    @article{lsc13,
      author = {Boeckx, Cedric and Leivada, Evelina and Martins, Pedro Tiago},
      journal = {Llengua, Societat i Communicació},
      pages = {26--33},
      title = {Language and Complexity Considerations: A Biolinguistic Perspective},
      volume = {11},
      year = {2013},
      openaccess = {yes}
    }
    
    PDF

Book Chapters

  1. Martins, P. T. (in press). There is no place for markedness in biologically-informed phonology. In B. D. Samuels (Ed.), Beyond markedness in formal phonology (pp. 219–232). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    Markedness is a pervasive notion in theories of language. In some phonological theories or models, it very much occupies a prominent position. In this chapter it is argued that the notion or markedness is not useful to our understanding of phonology and language in general, for two reasons. The first is that the notion of markedness has convincingly been shown in the literature to be a confusing label for a variety of things, all of which can be explained independently. The second is that if phonology is to be understood as part of a biological system (which we call language), its components must be amenable to investigation in the cognitive and biological sciences. The notion of markedness as part of a phonological component does not seem to qualify for any meaningful kind of investigation in that respect. It follows that markedness has no place in biologically-informed phonology.
    @incollection{martins17,
      author = {Martins, Pedro Tiago},
      year = {in press},
      title = {There is no place for markedness in biologically-informed phonology},
      booktitle = {Beyond markedness in formal phonology},
      editor = {Samuels, Bridget D},
      publisher = {John Benjamins},
      address = {Amsterdam},
      pages = {219--232}
    }
    
    URL PDF
  2. Boeckx, C., Martins, P. T., & Leivada, E. (2017). Biolinguistics. In I. Roberts & A. Ledgeway (Eds.), Cambridge Handbook of Historical Syntax (pp. 629–641). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 10.1017/9781107279070.029
    Excerpt: Coming across a contribution that deals with the biological foundations of the human language faculty in a handbook that is dedicated to historical syntax is likely to surprise many. Is the human language faculty not uniform? And is historical change not a cultural process, rather than a biological one?
    @incollection{hhs,
      address = {Cambridge},
      author = {Boeckx, Cedric and Martins, Pedro Tiago and Leivada, Evelina},
      booktitle = {Cambridge Handbook of Historical Syntax},
      editor = {Roberts, Ian and Ledgeway, Adam},
      publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
      title = {Biolinguistics},
      year = {2017},
      pages = {629--641},
      doi = {10.1017/9781107279070.029}
    }
    
  3. Boeckx, C., & Martins, P. T. (2016). Biolinguistics. In M. Aronoff (Ed.), Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics. 10.1093/acrefore/9780199384655.013.20
    All humans can acquire at least one natural language. Biolinguistics is the name given to the interdisciplinary enterprise that aims to unveil the biological bases of this unique capacity.
    @incollection{boeckxmartins16,
      title = {Biolinguistics},
      author = {Boeckx, Cedric and Martins, Pedro Tiago},
      year = {2016},
      editor = {Aronoff, Mark},
      booktitle = {Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics},
      doi = {10.1093/acrefore/9780199384655.013.20}
    }
    
  4. Martins, P. T., & Boeckx, C. (2016). Language evolution: Insisting on making it a mystery or turning it into a problem? In L. Dupuy, A. Grabizna, N. Foudon, & P. Saint-Germier (Eds.), Papers dedicated to Anne Reboul (pp. 1–10). Lyon: Institut des Sciences Cognitives/CNRS.
    In a recent, widely-read paper, Hauser et al. (2014) offer a rather negative view of the state of affairs in language evolution. More speciffcally, the authors believe that little to no progress has been made in the various relevant fields regarding the age-old questions of the origin and evolution of the human capacity for language. We beg to differ.
    @incollection{martinsboeckxproblem,
      author = {Martins, Pedro Tiago and Boeckx, Cedric},
      title = {Language evolution: Insisting on making it a mystery or turning it into a problem?},
      booktitle = {Papers dedicated to {Anne Reboul}},
      editor = {Dupuy, Ludivine and Grabizna, Adrianna and Foudon, Nadège and Saint-Germier, Pierre},
      publisher = {Institut des Sciences Cognitives/CNRS},
      address = {Lyon},
      pages = {1--10},
      year = {2016}
    }
    
    PDF
  5. Martins, P. T., Leivada, E., Benítez-Burraco, A., & Boeckx, C. (2016). Biological pluralism in service of biolinguistics. In K. Fujita & C. Boeckx (Eds.), Advances in Biolinguistics: The Human Language Faculty and its Biological Basis (pp. 153–169). London: Routledge.
    Excerpt: Upon close inspection, one concludes that the larger part of the issues that most generative linguistics work covers are philological in character, albeit through the use of sophisticated tools and notation.1 Thus, a very important (and unfortunate) realization when looking at the generative linguistics litera- ture is that its main premise (that language is a biological property of humans) does not entail, guide or constrain linguistic research in any meaningful way. In other words, if that premise were not held, the import of most linguistic work would remain largely unaffected, which is quite odd, for that premise is, again, one of the main tenets of generative linguistics. This apparent lack interest in the biological half of biolinguistics is one of two problems regarding how investigations into the nature of the language faculty have been carried out. The second, related problem is the conception of biology itself that has served as the (rhetorical) backbone of some of these investigations. We will discuss the treatment that notions like novelty and variation have received in the linguistic literature, sometimes under the “biolinguistics” rubric, and offer some insights and counter-evidence from evolutionary biology, in favor of a biologically informed study of language.
    @incollection{martinsetaladvances,
      address = {London},
      author = {Martins, Pedro Tiago and Leivada, Evelina and Benítez-Burraco, Antonio and Boeckx, Cedric},
      booktitle = {Advances in Biolinguistics: The Human Language Faculty and its Biological Basis},
      editor = {Fujita, Koji and Boeckx, Cedric},
      publisher = {Routledge},
      title = {Biological pluralism in service of biolinguistics},
      year = {2016},
      pages = {153--169}
    }
    
    URL

In Proceedings

  1. Martins, P. T. (2015). A reemergência da Biolinguística. In Textos Selecionados do XXX Encontro Nacional da Associação Portuguesa de Linguística (pp. 381–401). Porto: FLUP/APL. [Portuguese]
    This paper aims at outlining some aspects of biolinguistics — the study of the biological bases of language. After a brief introduction, some considerations are made about the reasons for the lack of attention given to this approach until very recently, as well as some reasons for its reemergence, which is now underway.
    @inproceedings{martins15apl,
      author = {Martins, Pedro Tiago},
      year = {2015},
      booktitle = {Textos Selecionados do XXX Encontro Nacional da Associação Portuguesa de Linguística},
      pages = {381--401},
      title = {A reemergência da Biolinguística},
      address = {Porto},
      publisher = {FLUP/APL}
    }
    
    PDF
    [Also appeared in Revista da Associação Portuguesa de Linguística 1: 563–592 (2016)]
  2. Theofanopoulou, C., Zhang, E. Q., Alamri, S., Castillo, G., Shi, E. R., Martins, P. T., Martínez-Ferreiro, S., & Boeckx, C. (2015). Subcortical Structures and Language Disruption. In Stem-, Spraak- en Taalpathologie 20 [Science of Aphasia 2015] (pp. 169–171).
    In this work, we explore the relationship between aphasia and lesion site when this affects the thalamus, the cerebellum, and the basal ganglia. To do so, we present the results of a pilot review targeting these nuclei, which reveals that the incidence of aphasia as a consequence of lesions affecting subcortical portions is similar to that of cortical insult. We feel that this has important consequences for both assessment and recovery. The review also exposes the need to add association tracts to the discussion.
    @inproceedings{theofanopoulou_etal_2015,
      author = {Theofanopoulou, Constantina and Zhang, Elizabeth Q. and Alamri, Saleh and Castillo, Gonzalo and Shi, Edward R. and Martins, Pedro Tiago and Martínez-Ferreiro, Silvia and Boeckx, Cedric},
      title = {Subcortical Structures and Language Disruption},
      booktitle = {Stem-, Spraak- en Taalpathologie 20 [Science of Aphasia 2015]},
      pages = {169--171},
      year = {2015}
    }
    
    PDF
  3. Rennicke, I., & Martins, P. T. (2013). As realizações fonéticas de /R/ em português europeu: análise de um corpus dialetal e implicações no sistema fonológico. In Textos Selecionados do XXVIII Encontro Nacional da Associação Portuguesa de Linguística (pp. 509–523). Coimbra: APL. [Portuguese]
    In this paper, we look at one of the most challenging subjects of both phonetics and phonology: rhotics. Our goal is two-fold: first, we analyze a corpus of spoken European Portuguese (EP), in an attempt to contribute to the so far sparse treatment of rhotics in the known descriptions of this language, and find that fricatives, contrary to those descriptions, are more abundant than trills; second, we make some reflections on rhotics as a natural class, a very problematic notion in this case, since the elements that are usually said to constitute a class of rhotics seem to have no shared features among them. We argue that, instead, in order to include the rhotics of EP in one natural class, historical evolution and allophony are to be looked at.
    @inproceedings{rennickemartins13apl,
      author = {Rennicke, Iiris and Martins, Pedro Tiago},
      year = {2013},
      booktitle = {Textos Selecionados do XXVIII Encontro Nacional da Associação Portuguesa de Linguística},
      title = {As realizações fonéticas de /R/ em português europeu: análise de um corpus dialetal e implicações no sistema fonológico},
      pages = {509--523},
      address = {Coimbra},
      publisher = {APL}
    }
    
    PDF
  4. Veloso, J., & Martins, P. T. (2013). Arquivo Dialetal do CLUP. In Textos Selecionados do XXVIII Encontro Nacional da Associação Portuguesa de Linguística (pp. 673–692). Coimbra: APL. [Portuguese]
    The present work gives a general presentation of the Dialect Archive of the Center of Linguistics of the University of Porto, a database of spoken European Portuguese, which encompasses both mainland Portugal and the archipelagos of Madeira and Azores, effectively showcasing the dialectal variation of the language. The archive consists of a set of recordings collected during the last two decades, complete with full orthographic and narrow phonetic transcriptions, detailed maps and descriptions of the attested dialectal phenomena. In order to provide a general overview of the project, we go through its history, general aims, methodological concerns and materials.
    @inproceedings{velosomartins13apl,
      author = {Veloso, João and Martins, Pedro Tiago},
      year = {2013},
      booktitle = {Textos Selecionados do XXVIII Encontro Nacional da Associação Portuguesa de Linguística},
      title = {Arquivo Dialetal do CLUP},
      pages = {673--692},
      address = {Coimbra},
      publisher = {APL}
    }
    
    PDF
  5. Veloso, J., & Martins, P. T. (2011). Etimologia não é morfologia: produtividade e composicionalidade na formação e processamento dos “compostos morfológicos” do português. In A. Costa, I. Falé, & P. Barbosa (Eds.), Textos Selecionados do XXVII Encontro Nacional da Associação Portuguesa de Linguística (pp. 558–573). Lisbon: APL. [Portuguese]
    Words that combine different etyma do not correspond necessarily to morphologically complex words. We argue that the main property for classifying a word as morphologically complex is its compositional processing. Portuguese lexicon admits a set of words that combine different Latin or Greek etyma. These are commonly said to form a special subset within the lexicon of Portuguese and to be the result of a special process of compounding (“morphological compounding”), defined on the basis of etymology only. Since etymological information is not part of the speakers’ I-language (the linguist’s explicandum), these words should be described as morphologically simple words.
    @inproceedings{velosomartins11apl,
      author = {Veloso, João and Martins, Pedro Tiago},
      year = {2011},
      booktitle = {Textos Selecionados do XXVII Encontro Nacional da Associação Portuguesa de Linguística},
      editor = {Costa, Armanda and Falé, Isabel and Barbosa, Pilar},
      title = {Etimologia não é morfologia: produtividade e composicionalidade na formação e processamento dos ``compostos morfológicos'' do português},
      pages = {558--573},
      address = {Lisbon},
      publisher = {APL}
    }
    
    PDF

Reviews

  1. Martins, P. T. (2014). The Bird is the Word: Review of “Birdsong, Speech, Language: Exploring the Evolution of Mind and Brain” (Ed. by Johan J. Bolhuis & Martin Everaert, 2013). Biolinguistics, 8, 97–107.
    The idea that birds might have something related to language that humans also seem to have has gone full circle: After the developments of linguistics and psychology during the 20th century put the ‘uniquely human’ in the center stage, with the help of failed or misled language experiments with animals, it now seems that perhaps birds have something to tell us after all. Even though the study of our closest cousins still very much dominates the understanding of our own biological and behavioral traits and tendencies, current, cutting-edge theories of language evolution now give a great deal of importance to the study of birds and their vocal abilities. It is not the case of course that scientists nowadays think that birds have ‘human language’ (they don’t, as the reader will also have concluded, if he has ever been around birds and tried to have a conversation). Instead, what has happened is that recent developments in various fields have made the study of birds a perfectly fine component of any serious approach to the unveiling of the nature of language.
    @article{bird,
      author = {Martins, Pedro Tiago},
      journal = {Biolinguistics},
      pages = {97--107},
      title = {The Bird is the Word: Review of ``Birdsong, Speech, Language: Exploring the Evolution of Mind and Brain'' (Ed. by Johan J. Bolhuis & Martin Everaert, 2013)},
      volume = {8},
      year = {2014}
    }
    
    PDF
  2. Martins, P. T. (2012). Review of “Phonological Architecture: A Biolinguistic Perspective” (Bridget Samuels, 2011). Linguística - Revista De Estudos Linguísticos Da Universidade Do Porto, 7, 209–216.
    As its title suggests, this is a biolinguistics book. Given the vast scope of this journal and the methodological and theoretical departures that the work under analysis might represent, I will start by making some very brief considerations, at the cost of not being able to provide an in-depth review of the book itself due to space restrictions, but with the advantage of providing readers with the right mindset: a fundamentally biolinguistic one, which hopefully enables a better understanding of Samuels’ endeavor and its implications for those who are interested.
    @article{reluprev,
      author = {Martins, Pedro Tiago},
      journal = {Linguística - Revista de Estudos Linguísticos da Universidade do Porto},
      pages = {209--216},
      title = {Review of ``Phonological Architecture: A Biolinguistic Perspective'' (Bridget Samuels, 2011)},
      volume = {7},
      year = {2012}
    }
    
    PDF

Others

  1. Martins, P. T. (2014). Interview with Marc Hauser. In P. T. Martins & E. Leivada (Eds.), (Inter)views on Biolinguistics (pp. 1–10). Biolinguistics Initiative Barcelona.
    As part of the activities of the two projects led by Cedric Boeckx (a Marie Curie International Reintegration Grant from the European Union (PIRG-GA-2009-256413) and a grant from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (FFI-2010-20634), scholars came to visit our group (Biolinguistics Initiative Barcelona) and gave seminar talks. Pedro Tiago Martins and Evelina Leivada took advantage of these visits to interview our guests on various topics in Biolinguistics. All of the interviews will eventually be made available on our blog, under the rubric "(Inter)views on Biolinguistics". We will start with Marc Hauser, who we had the pleasure to welcome for two talks last March.
    @incollection{interviewhauser,
      author = {Martins, Pedro Tiago},
      booktitle = {(Inter)views on Biolinguistics},
      editor = {Martins, Pedro Tiago and Leivada, Evelina},
      pages = {1--10},
      publisher = {Biolinguistics Initiative Barcelona},
      title = {Interview with Marc Hauser},
      year = {2014}
    }
    
    PDF
  2. Boeckx, C., Veloso, J., & Martins, P. T. (2011). Interview with Professor Cedric Boeckx (Catalan Institute for Advanced Studies & Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona). ElingUP, 3(1), 1–29.
    Cedric Boeckx is a Research Professor at the Catalan Institute for Advanced Studies (ICREA), and a member of the Center for Theoretical Linguistics at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Most recently he was an Associate Professor of Linguistics at Harvard University. He is the author and editor of various books on syntax, minimalism and language (from a biolinguistic perspective). He is also the founding co-editor, with Kleanthes K. Grohmann, of the Open Access journal Biolinguistics. The interview came to fruition after we had the idea of asking various linguists the following question: “What is the right place for linguistics?”. At first, we were looking for short, straightforward answers. The question soon proved to be hard to approach that way, and Prof. Cedric Boeckx was kind enough to accept our invitation for a more thorough elaboration on the subject, under the “Interview” section of our journal, which he generously granted us on November 7th, 2011, at the Faculty of Letters of the University of Porto, a day before his “Introduction to Biolinguistics” workshop, also there, and for which we are also very thankful. This text is a virtually word-for-word transcription of the recorded 2-hour long interview, subject only to minor revisions by our editorial team and some comments by the interviewee. We hope that the final result is of interest to students, researchers and people alike.
    @article{interviewboeckx,
      author = {Boeckx, Cedric and Veloso, João and Martins, Pedro Tiago},
      journal = {elingUP},
      pages = {1--29},
      number = {1},
      volume = {3},
      title = {Interview with Professor Cedric Boeckx (Catalan Institute for Advanced Studies & Universitat Aut{\`o}noma de Barcelona)},
      year = {2011}
    }
    
    PDF
  3. Brandão de Carvalho, J., Veloso, J., Silva, F., & Martins, P. T. (2010). Entrevista com o Professor Joaquim Brandão de Carvalho. ElingUP, 2(1), 3–10. [Portuguese]
    Joaquim Brandão de Carvalho é foneticista na Universidade de Paris VIII.
    @article{interviewbrandao,
      author = {Brandão de Carvalho, Joaquim and Veloso, João and Silva, Fátima and Martins, Pedro Tiago},
      journal = {elingUP},
      number = {1},
      volume = {2},
      pages = {3--10},
      title = {Entrevista com o Professor Joaquim Brandão de Carvalho},
      year = {2010}
    }
    
    PDF
  4. Martins, P. T. (2010). A Importância do Acesso Livre. ElingUP, 2(1), 1–2. [Portuguese]
    Esta revista é gratuita. Isto significa que o leitor não teve de pagar rigorosamente nada para ter acesso a nenhum dos seus artigos nem precisou de estar ligado a uma rede com privilégios ou características especiais para proceder ao seu download. Também não teve de esperar algum tempo até que a publicação se tornasse gratuita. A única coisa de que precisou - além de interesse - foi algo que milhões de pessoas têm à sua disposição: uma ligação convencional à internet. A isto chama-se "Acesso Livre", e a sua importância é imensa.
    @article{martins_oa,
      author = {Martins, Pedro Tiago},
      journal = {elingUP},
      number = {1},
      volume = {2},
      pages = {1--2},
      title = {A Importância do Acesso Livre},
      year = {2010}
    }
    
    PDF
  5. Lacerda, F., Veloso, J., & Martins, P. T. (2009). Entrevista com o Professor Francisco Lacerda. ElingUP, 1(1), 1–17. [Portuguese]
    Francisco Lacerda é foneticista na Universidade de Estocolmo. Engenheiro de formação (licenciado pelo Instituto Superior Técnico), vive e trabalha na Suécia desde 1979. Foi durante vários anos membro da Comissão de Acompanhamento Científico do Centro de Linguística da Universidade do Porto. Nessa qualidade, visitou o Centro em várias ocasiões, tendo sempre deixado sugestões e ideias criativas, válidas e importantes para o melhoramento do trabalho realizado e a realizar. A necessidade de o Centro se abrir mais ao exterior e de se tornar visível fora do meio estritamente académico, a urgência de passarmos a integrar activamente estudantes de pré- e pós-graduação nas actividades do CLUP e a sugestão de uma revista como esta foram algumas das ideias em que Francisco Lacerda insistiu nessas visitas. Francisco Lacerda é reconhecido internacionalmente como um foneticista produtivo e inovador. A convite da FCT, integrou e coordenou várias comissões de avaliação internacional de unidades e projectos de investigação. A sua atitude perante a ciência pode ser vista como um exemplo para os que se iniciam na investigação. Por todas estas razões, escolhemos o seu nome para ser o primeiro entrevistado da eLingUp, com a devida anuência da Comissão Científica do CLUP. A entrevista decorreu no gabinete de Francisco Lacerda, em Estocolmo, na tarde do dia 30 de Novembro de 2009 e foi conduzida por dois dos membros da equipa redactorial da revista: João Veloso e Pedro Tiago Martins. A conversa - rica, produtiva, instrutiva, como são sempre as conversas com Francisco Lacerda - estendeu-se por mais de duas horas. A transcrição que se segue não dá conta dos entusiasmos e das ironias que atravessaram alguns momentos da entrevista e tenta dar forma a um discurso oral fluido, em constante formulação e reformulação e sempre marcado por uma grande informalidade. Vários tópicos foram abordados. Na passagem a escrito, foram reformuladas, com o assentimento do entrevistado, algumas afirmações e foram introduzidas algumas supressões, de que as mais extensas vão devidamente assinaladas no texto. Na opinião dos entrevistadores, o testemunho que passamos a apresentar - e orgulhamo-nos por termos conseguido obtê-lo e publicá-lo neste número inaugural da revista - reveste-se de um grande simbolismo e de um grande interesse.
    @article{interviewlacerda,
      author = {Lacerda, Francisco and Veloso, João and Martins, Pedro Tiago},
      journal = {elingUP},
      number = {1},
      volume = {1},
      pages = {1--17},
      title = {Entrevista com o Professor Francisco Lacerda},
      year = {2009}
    }
    
    PDF